Our Miniaturized TTL Pulse Generators seamlessly integrate with our other optogenetics products. The pulse train parameters and its triggering are controlled via a graphical interface. The generator connects to a computer with a USB cable and to a LED driver or a shutter with a BNC cable. Any channel of a TTL pulse generator can be assigned to a LED driver, a light shutter or it can be used as a trigger for other channels.
Our compact LED packages can be used either with our basic or smart drivers. The multiple color LED packages are well-suited for optogenetics stimulation or silencing and fluorescence excitation over the optical fibers. They are useful for both in vivo and in vitro optogenetics and fluorescence experiments.
As LED lighting made it obvious, visible light can be generated by LED pumping of phosphors or fluorescent crystals such as Cerium-doped YAG crystal (Ce:YAG). However, the relatively big emitting area of pumping LEDs and highly divergent light cone of fluorescence emission result in light sources of very large optical etendue (product of emitter size and light cone) that are not suitable for effective coupling into small core diameter optical fibers required in optogenetic experiments and elsewhere. Consequently, we designed a fluorescent light source, called the Ce:YAG Fluorescence Light Source, in which a Ce:YAG crystal is pumped with multiple high-power blue laser diodes instead of blue LEDs. This concentrates excitation and fluorescence emission in a very small area of the Ce:YAG crystal. As shown in the figure below, this patent pending laser diode pumping geometry significantly increases the fiber coupling efficiency compared to conventional light sources such as incandescent lamps or LED based light sources.