Instead of cannulation, in vitro and in vivo head-fixed animal optogenetics experiments require optical probes that easily connect to micromanipulator holers and light delivery fiber, while minimizing obstruction to the observation site by the loose fibers or connectors.
Instead of cannulation, in vitro and in vivo head-fixed optogenetics experiments require thin and long optical probes that easily connect to micro-manipulator probe holders and have minimal obstruction of the observation site.
The Opto-electrical Probe Holder has similar function as optical probe holder with addition of an electrical contact. In order to reduce cable congestion around the specimen, the Opto-electrical Probe Holder permits bringing the optical and electrical contact to the back of the holder.
Single-cell electrical and optical recordings require that the fiber end is comparable to the size of the cell under observation.